Confidence-Building Measure F

Form Declaration

F: Nothing new to declare, year of last declaration is 2011

Declaration of past activities in offensive and/or defensive biological research and development programmes

1. Date of entry into force of the Convention for the State Party
18 September 1972
2. Past offensive biological research and development programmes
Period(s) of activities

1 Jan 46 to 30 Jun 58

Summary of the research and development activities indicating whether work was performed concerning production, test and evaluation, weaponization, stockpiling of biological agents, the destruction programme of such agents and weapons, and other related research.

In the above period offensive work undertaken by Canada included:  studies of improved procedures for production of certain toxins (eg. botulinum and diphtheria); studies on the use of insects as vectors for pathogenic bacteria and viruses; test and evaluation of munitions, including performance in cold weather; studies of weapon-produced aerosols of potential BW agents; fundamental work related to field trials, dealing with the dispersion and properties of solid particulates, preparation of finely divided solids for munitions charging and sampling of toxic particulates; development of tissue culture processes for large scale cultivation of viruses; and development of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei as new potential BW agents and continued work on Brucella suis and Pasteurella tularensis as BW agents.  There was no large scale production, stockpiling or weaponization of BW agents.  When necessary, BW agents were destroyed by autoclaving.

3. Past defensive biological research and development programmes
Period(s) of activities

1 Jan 46 to present

Summary of the research and development activities indicating whether or not work was conducted in the following areas: prophylaxis, studies on pathogenicity and virulence, diagnostic techniques, aerobiology, detection, treatment, toxinology, physical protection, decontamination, and other related research, with location if possible

A key factor in biological defence work is that it is only through a thorough understanding of the properties and behaviour of potential BW agents that the potential threat can be appreciated, and work on suitable defensive measures can be undertaken.  Accordingly, in the past there was much basic research on such agents, as well as studies of their characteristics and behaviour as aerosols.  The aerosol work included studies to delineate the factors responsible for the losses of viability in airborne bacteria and viruses during long-distance aerosol transport.  The aim was to better understand the feasibility of large scale use of BW agents.  Medical work in biological defence has covered research and development, and in some cases production of toxoids, antitoxins and vaccines for various potential BW agents including Botulinum toxin, Rinderpest virus, Newcastle Disease virus, B. mallei, F. tularensis and Diphtheria toxin.  More recent work in biological defence is summarized in Form A, part 2.