Centre National de Référence pour les Infections Virales Emergentes (National Reference Center for Emerging Viral Infections)

2. Where is it located (include both address and geographical location)?

Centre National de Référence pour les Infections Virales Emergentes, Laboratoire de Virologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, CH-1205 Genève, Switzerland

N 46° 11' 37.20", E 6° 8' 59.92"

3. Floor area of laboratory areas by containment level
BL 4 , 36.00 SqM
Of note, the BSL4 unit is operational and holds a license for diagnostic purposes only, as follows: “Detection of viruses in clinical samples by molecular and/or serological methods”.
BL 3 , 39.00 SqM
BL 2 , 29.00 SqM
Total laboratory floor area (SqM)

4. The organizational structure of each facility

(viii) Briefly describe the publication policy of the facility

Publication in open literature.

(ix) Provide a list of publicly-available papers and reports resulting from the work published during the previous 12 months. (To include authors, titles and full references)

Impact of flavivirus vaccine-induced immunity on primary Zika virus antibody response in humans.
Malafa S, Medits I, Aberle JH, Aberle SW, Haslwanter D, Tsouchnikas G, Wölfel S, Huber KL, Percivalle E, Cherpillod P, Thaler M, Roßbacher L, Kundi M, Heinz FX, Stiasny K.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Feb 4;14(2)

Cerebrospinal fluid features in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients.
Bellon M, Schweblin C, Lambeng N, Cherpillod P, Vazquez J, Lalive PH, Schibler M, Deffert 
C.Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 8

COVID-19 epidemic in Switzerland: on the importance of testing, contact tracing and isolation.
Salathé M, Althaus CL, Neher R, Stringhini S, Hodcroft E, Fellay J, Zwahlen M, Senti G, Battegay M, Wilder-Smith A, Eckerle I, Egger M, Low N.
Swiss Med Wkly. 2020 Mar 19

Covid-19: a puzzle with many missing pieces.
Vetter P, Eckerle I, Kaiser L.
BMJ. 2020 Feb 19

SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in COVID-19 hotspots.
Eckerle I, Meyer B.
Lancet. 2020 Aug 22;396(10250):514-515

Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in Geneva, Switzerland (SEROCoV-POP): a population-based study.
Stringhini S, Wisniak A, Piumatti G, Azman AS, Lauer SA, Baysson H, De Ridder D, Petrovic D, Schrempft S, Marcus K, Yerly S, Arm Vernez I, Keiser O, Hurst S, Posfay-Barbe KM, Trono D, Pittet D, Gétaz L, Chappuis F, Eckerle I, Vuilleumier N, Meyer B, Flahault A, Kaiser L, Guessous I.
Lancet. 2020 Aug 1;396(10247):313-319

Culture-Competent SARS-CoV-2 in Nasopharynx of Symptomatic Neonates, Children, and Adolescents.
L'Huillier AG, Torriani G, Pigny F, Kaiser L, Eckerle I.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Oct;26(10)

Scientific consensus on the COVID-19 pandemic: we need to act now.
Alwan NA, Burgess RA, Ashworth S, Beale R, Bhadelia N, Bogaert D, Dowd J, Eckerle I, Goldman LR, Greenhalgh T, Gurdasani D, Hamdy A, Hanage WP, Hodcroft EB, Hyde Z, Kellam P, Kelly-Irving M, Krammer F, Lipsitch M, McNally A, McKee M, Nouri A, Pimenta D, Priesemann V, Rutter H, Silver J, Sridhar D, Swanton C, Walensky RP, Yamey G, Ziauddeen H.
Lancet. 2020 Oct 31;396(10260)

Validation of a commercially available SARS-CoV-2 serological immunoassay.
Meyer B, Torriani G, Yerly S, Mazza L, Calame A, Arm-Vernez I, Zimmer G, Agoritsas T, Stirnemann J, Spechbach H, Guessous I, Stringhini S, Pugin J, Roux-Lombard P, Fontao L, Siegrist CA, Eckerle I, Vuilleumier N, Kaiser L; Geneva Center for Emerging Viral Diseases.
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Oct;26(10):1386-1394

Diagnostic accuracy of Augurix COVID-19 IgG serology rapid test.
Andrey DO, Cohen P, Meyer B, Torriani G, Yerly S, Mazza L, Calame A, Arm-Vernez I, Guessous I, Stringhini S, Roux-Lombard P, Fontao L, Agoritsas T, Stirnemann J, Reny JL, Siegrist CA, Eckerle I, Kaiser L, Vuilleumier N; Geneva Centre for Emerging Viral Diseases.
Eur J Clin Invest. 2020 Oct;50(10)

Immunological assessment of pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome related to COVID-19.
Grazioli S, Tavaglione F, Torriani G, Wagner N, Rohr M, L'Huillier AG, Leclercq C, Perrin A, Bordessoule A, Beghetti M, Pachlopnik J, Vavassori S, Perreau M, Eberhardt C, Didierlaurent A, Kaiser L, Eckerle I, Roux-Lombard P, Blanchard-Rohner G.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Nov 12

Definitions for coronavirus disease 2019 reinfection, relapse and PCR re-positivity.
Yahav D, Yelin D, Eckerle I, Eberhardt CS, Wang J, Cao B, Kaiser L.
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Dec 5

SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract of children and adults with early acute COVID-19.
Baggio S, L'Huillier AG, Yerly S, Bellon M, Wagner N, Rohr M, Huttner A, Blanchard-Rohner G, Loevy N, Kaiser L, Jacquerioz F, Eckerle I.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 6

Serology-informed estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality risk in Geneva, Switzerland.
Perez-Saez J, Lauer SA, Kaiser L, Regard S, Delaporte E, Guessous I, Stringhini S, Azman AS; Serocov-POP Study Group.
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 14:S1473-3099(20)30584-3

Delayed Laboratory Response to COVID-19 Caused by Molecular Diagnostic Contamination.
Mögling R, Meijer A, Berginc N, Bruisten S, Charrel R, Coutard B, Eckerle I, Enouf V, Hungnes O, Korukluoglu G, Kossyvakis T, Mentis A, Molenkamp R, Muradrasoli S, Papa A, Pigny F, Thirion L, van der Werf S, Reusken C.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;26(8):1944-1946

Unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing of blood from hospitalized febrile children in Gabon.
Fernandes JF, Laubscher F, Held J, Eckerle I, Docquier M, Grobusch MP, Mordmüller B, Kaiser L, Cordey S.
Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec;9(1)

Validation and clinical evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralisation test (sVNT).
Meyer B, Reimerink J, Torriani G, Brouwer F, Godeke GJ, Yerly S, Hoogerwerf M, Vuilleumier N, Kaiser L, Eckerle I, Reusken C.
Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec;9(1)

Head-to-Head Accuracy Comparison of Three Commercial COVID-19 IgM/IgG Serology Rapid Tests.
Andrey DO, Cohen P, Meyer B, Torriani G, Yerly S, Mazza L, Calame A, Arm-Vernez I, Guessous I, Stringhini S, Roux-Lombard P, Fontao L, Agoritsas T, Stirnemann J, Reny JL, Siegrist CA, Eckerle I, Kaiser L, Vuilleumier N.
J Clin Med. 2020 Jul 24;9(8)

Daily Viral Kinetics and Innate and Adaptive Immune Response Assessment in COVID-19: a Case Series.
Vetter P, Eberhardt CS, Meyer B, Martinez Murillo PA, Torriani G, Pigny F, Lemeille S, Cordey S, Laubscher F, Vu DL, Calame A, Schibler M, Jacquerioz F, Blanchard-Rohner G, Siegrist CA, Kaiser L, Didierlaurent AM, Eckerle I.
mSphere. 2020 Nov 11;5(6)

Development and Validation of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immunoassay as a Highly Specific Tool for Determining Past Exposure to SARS-CoV-2.
Muench P, Jochum S, Wenderoth V, Ofenloch-Haehnle B, Hombach M, Strobl M, Sadlowski H, Sachse C, Torriani G, Eckerle I, Riedel A.
J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Sep 22;58(10)

5. Briefly describe the biological defence work carried out at the facility, including type(s) of micro-organisms(9) and/or toxins studied, as well as outdoor studies of biological aerosols.

The National Reference Center for Emerging Viral Diseases (CRIVE/NAVI) is a national reference laboratory by order of the Federal Office of Public Health. Its task is the detection of emerging and re-emerging viruses of all biosafety levels, especially hemorrhagic fever viruses and smallpox virus. The BSL4 unit is approved for diagnostic purposes only, which does not allow any culturing or enrichment of such viruses. The National Reference Center for Emerging Viral Diseases is part of the Laboratory of Virology (LV) at the University Hospitals of Geneva. Since January 1st, 2018, the CRIVE acts also as WHO National Center for Measles and Rubella.

Since the beginning of 2020, the CRIVE has been performing about 200’000 SARS-CoV-2 screening PCR and many thousands serologies. Currently, the CRIVE also performs Sanger and NGS sequencing on SARS-CoV-2 genomes for identification of “UK and South Africa” mutants.

The LV performs the analysis of many viruses impacting the human health as done in most of the hospitals (HIV, Hepatitis, CMV, EBV, respiratory and enteric viruses, etc.). LV does most of the viral analysis needed by an university hospital.

LV also hosts the Swiss National Center for Influenza.

For further information please visit (website in French):

(9) Including viruses and prions.