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Human Diseases

1. Fecha en que se ha tomado conocimiento de la existencia del brote

In 2021 Australia had no outbreaks of infectious diseases or similar occurrences caused by toxins that seemed to deviate from the normal pattern. Below is information on outbreaks of infectious disease and similar occurrences in humans.

Human diseases

The Australian Government Department of Health (Health), through the Office of Health Protection and Response, has overall responsibility for national communicable disease surveillance. State and territory health departments collect notifications of communicable diseases from doctors, hospitals and/or laboratories under their public health legislation.

In September 2007, the National Health Security Act 2007 received Royal Assent. This Act provides a legislative basis for, and authorises the exchange of information, including personal information, between states and territories and the Australian Government. The Act provides for the establishment of the National Notifiable Diseases List (NNDL), which specifies the diseases about which personal information can be provided. There are approximately 60 diseases on the NNDL which can be found at: http://www.health.gov.au/casedefinitions. The National Health Security Agreement, which was drafted in 2007 and signed by Health Ministers in 2008, establishes operational arrangements to formalise and enhance existing surveillance and reporting systems. Under the Agreement states and territories forward de-identified data on the nationally agreed set of communicable diseases to the Department’s National Notifiable Diseases System database at http://www9.health.gov.au/cda/source/rpt_2_sel.cfm for the purposes of national communicable disease surveillance. HIV and CJD are reported through different mechanisms.

Further information is collected from other national, jurisdictional and sentinel surveillance systems to supplement notifications data for some diseases. This includes data on syndromes, severity, strains and risk factors.

The Department of Health is responsible for timely and accurate intelligence-gathering and the analysis and reporting of communicable diseases data, for both current and emerging diseases. The Department also coordinates the provision of fortnightly summary reports through the Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA), which can be found at http://www.health.gov.au/cdnareport. Quarterly data summaries and annual reports are published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence which is published on the department’s website at http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-pubs-c....

The Department of Health also manages the OzFoodNet network. OzFoodNet is a collaborative initiative with States and Territories to detect and investigate outbreaks of foodborne and potentially foodborne disease, to provide better understanding of the causes and incidence of foodborne disease in the community, and to provide an evidence base for policy formulation.  OzFoodNet reports on a fortnightly basis to CDNA and quarterly and annual reports are published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence.

CDNA provides national public health co-ordination on communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control. It offers strategic advice to governments and other key bodies on public health actions to minimise the impact of communicable diseases in Australia and the region. Its members include representatives from the Australian commonwealth, state and territory governments, New Zealand, key organisations in the communicable diseases field, and others with relevant expertise. CDNA holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance and enables commonwealth and state health authorities to cooperate in taking prompt action to control outbreaks. CDNA also meets face-to-face three times per year.

The Public Health Laboratory Network (PHLN) is a collaborative group of laboratories, which have expertise and provide services in public health microbiology. PHLN’s vision is to be an action-oriented national public health microbiology network, providing advice and services that add value and form a foundation of the broader Australian public health system. The central purpose and role of PHLN is defined as the provision of leadership and consultation in all aspects of public health microbiology and communicable disease control. This is achieved through the continued development of a proactive network of public health laboratories to protect and improve the health of people of Australia.

PHLN is comprised of state and territory, expert, national and observer members. Each Australian state or territory is represented on PHLN from one or two organisations, as appropriate. Larger organisations with separate bacteriology and virology expertise may nominate a representative from each. National members include representatives from the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness (ACDP) and CDNA. There is an expert member from the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza. Observer members include representatives from Private Pathology, Forensic and Technical Intelligence - Australian Federal Police and New Zealand Jurisdictions.

Number of notifications of communicable diseases in humans reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, 2017 to 2021 (as of 4 April 2022)

Disease

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

Bloodborne diseases

 

 

 

 

 

Hepatitis B (newly acquired)

147

137

164

123

80

Hepatitis B (unspecified)

5,841

5,816

5,633

4,971

4,905

Hepatitis C (newly acquired)

623

613

792

676

728

Hepatitis C (unspecified)

9,829

9,883

8,386

7,328

6,906

Hepatitis D

66

79

68

70

84

Gastrointestinal diseases

 

 

 

 

 

Botulism

2

 

2

1

5

Campylobacteriosis

28,699

33,143

36,132

31,956

37,480

Cholera

2

 

2

 

1

Cryptosporidiosis

4,701

3,012

2,677

2,443

1,836

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)

14

13

19

14

7

Hepatitis A

217

434

246

85

26

Hepatitis E

48

39

55

31

10

Listeriosis

71

73

52

44

44

Paratyphoid

68

81

116

38

5

Shiga Toxin-producing E. Coli (STEC)

497

563

654

570

624

Salmonellosis

16,382

14,130

14,692

12,040

10,731

Shigellosis

1,750

2,505

3,154

1,602

476

Typhoid Fever

144

176

202

88

16

Listed human diseases

 

 

 

 

 

COVID-19^

    -

-

 -

28,723

470,871

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (human)

-

-

-

-

-

Plague

-

-

-

-

-

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

-

-

-

-

-

Smallpox

-

-

-

-

-

Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC)

-

-

-

-

-

Yellow fever

-

-

-

-

-

Sexually transmissible infections

 

 

 

 

 

Chlamydial infection

101,107

104,730

107,108

91,263

86,941

Donovanosis

 

 

 

 

 

Gonococcal infection

28,358

30,841

34,739

29,838

26,853

Syphilis - congenital

8

9

4

17

15

Syphilis – less than 2 years duration

4,415

5,093

5,926

5,370

5,652

Syphilis – greater than 2 years or unspecified duration

1,997

2,262

2,509

2,074

1,926

Vaccine preventable diseases

 

 

 

 

 

Diphtheria

8

11

7

9

6

Haemophilus influenzae type b

16

18

22

19

19

Influenza (laboratory confirmed)

251,305

58,878

313,490

21,364

627

Measles

81

103

284

25

 

Meningococcal disease – invasive

380

281

206

90

74

Mumps

811

634

172

153

20

Pertussis

12,237

12,578

12,028

3,458

548

Pneumococcal disease – invasive

2,051

2,024

2,134

1,115

1,331

Rubella

10

9

20

3

3

Rubella – congenital

 

 

 

 

 

Tetanus

4

3

3

7

3

Varicella zoster infection – Chickenpox

3,171

4,601

4,438

2,937

2,082

Varicella zoster infection – Shingles

9,249

14,136

15,244

16,319

11,134

Varicella zoster infection – Unspecified

15,789

12,845

13,130

12,345

19,969

Vector-borne diseases

 

 

 

 

 

Flavivirus infection (unspecified)

17

8

10

13

3

Barmah Forest virus infection

447

330

241

731

382

Chikungunya virus infection

99

41

84

34

2

Dengue virus infection

1,135

932

1,465

224

10

Japanese encephalitis virus infection

1

 

3

1

2

West Nile/Kunjin virus infection

5

 

1

 

 

Malaria

365

408

379

159

56

Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection

 

1

 

 

1

Ross River virus infection

6,957

3,107

2,967

6,309

3,113

Zoonoses

 

 

 

 

 

Anthrax

 

 

 

 

 

Australian bat lyssavirus

 

 

 

 

 

Brucellosis

19

28

9

19

17

Leptospirosis

146

142

82

97

249

Lyssavirus (NEC)

 

 

 

 

 

Ornithosis (otherwise known as Psittacosis)

21

9

23

64

36

Q fever

478

516

568

452

497

Tularaemia

 

 

 

2

 

Other notifiable diseases

 

 

 

 

 

Invasive Group A streptococcal@

 

 

 

 

228

Legionellosis

384

447

440

527

578

Leprosy

10

6

10

6

13

Respiratory syncytial virus@

 

 

 

 

1,510

Tuberculosis

1,437

1,439

1,511

1,612

1,445

 

Notes:

NEC – not elsewhere classified

^ COVID-19 became nationally notifiable in 2020.

@ Invasive Group A streptococcal disease and respiratory syncytial virus became nationally notifiable on 1 July 2021.

2. Localización y zona aproximada afectada

Localización
N/D
Zona aproximada afectada
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3. Tipo de enfermedad/intoxicación
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4. Presunta fuente de la enfermedad/intoxicación
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5. Posibles agentes causales
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6. Características principales de los síntomas
N/D

7. Síntomas detallados, cuando proceda

8. Desviaciones de la pauta normal en lo concerniente a

9. Número aproximado de casos primarios
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10. Número total aproximado de casos
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11. Número de fallecimientos
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12. Desarrollo del brote
N/D
13. Medidas adoptadas
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Notas
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Archivos adjuntos
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