Confidence-Building Measure C


Australia’s submission of Confidence Building Measure “C” with respect to the Defence Science and Technology (DST) Group and the Centre for Disease Preparedness (ACDP) is as follows:

Land Division, Defence Science and Technology (DST) Group

The policy of the Defence Science and Technology Group is to publish results of general scientific value in open literature. Information that is more specialised and relevant particularly to defence is published in laboratory reports, which are unclassified and available to the public, unless they contain information that might prejudice the security of Australia or information that is “commercial-in-confidence”. Most results of the biological research will be either unclassified or “commercial-in-confidence”.

Journal Papers

Wilkinson D.A., Holowachuk S.A., Corbett C., Antonation K., Rostek L., Wotherspoon A., Toole K.,  Unsworth N., Coumbaros J., Rastogi V., Donais B., Osmond J. and Baxter C.M. (2020). Effect of Decontamination Agents following Biological Contamination on Fingermarks, Footwear, Documents and DNA. J. Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. 53: 173-209.

Newton ND, Colmant AMG, O'Brien CA, Ledger E, Paramitha D, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Watterson D, McLean BJ, Hall-Mendelin S, Warrilow D, van den Hurk AF, Liu W, Hoare C, Kizu JR, Gauci PJ, Haniotis J, Doggett SL, Shaban B, Johansen CA, Hall RA, Hobson-Peters J. Genetic, Morphological and Antigenic Relationships between Mesonivirus Isolates from Australian Mosquitoes and Evidence for Their Horizontal Transmission. Viruses. 2020 Oct 13;12(10):1159.

Liu W, Kizu JR, Matley DR, Grant R, McCallum FJ, Moller CG, Carthew TL, Hang J, Gubala AJ, Aaskov JG. Circulation of 2 Barmah Forest Virus Lineages in Military Training Areas, Australia. Emerging Infectious Disesases. 2020 Dec;26(12):3061-3065

Conference papers/proceedings or book chapters

Nil in 2020

Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness (ACDP)

Consistent with the goal of encouraging publication of results and promotion of use of knowledge, ACDP has compiled the following list of relevant contributions for 2020:

Journal Papers

Besier, Shane; Shilton, Cathy; Reid, Tristan; Keyburn, Anthony. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in WA and the NT. The Scope. 2020; 1:12-16.

Horman, William; Nguyen, Thi; Kedzierska, Katherine; Butler, Jeff; Shan, songhua; Arkinstall, Rachel; et al. The dynamics of the ferret immune response during H7N9 influenza virus infection. Frontiers In Immunology. 2020; 11:1-12.

Hobbs, Emma; Reid, Tristan - Animals and SARS-CoV-2: Species susceptibility and viral transmission in experimental and natural conditions, and the potential implications for community transmission, Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;00:1-18.

Boardman, Wayne; Baker, Michelle; Boyd, Vicky; Crameri, Gary; Peck, Grant; Reardon, Terry; Smith, Ian; Caraguel, Charles; Prowse, Thomas - Serological evidence of exposure to a coronavirus antigenically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-1) in the Grey-headed flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;00:1–5.

Eagles, Debbie - The Role of Laboratories in Mitigating the Threat of SSBAs to Animal Health and Agriculture, Microbiology Australia 41(3) 136-138.

Eschbaumer, Michael; Vogtlin, Andrea; Paton, David; Barnabei, Jamie; Sanchez Vazquez, Manuel Jose; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Rivera, Alejandro Mauricio; O'Brien, Dwane; Nfon, Charles; Brocchi, Emiliana; Kassimi, Labib Bakkali; Lefebvre, David; Lopez, Roberto Navarro; Maradei, Eduardo; Duffy, Sergio; Loitsch, Angelika; De Clercq, Kris; King, Donald; Zientara, Stephan; Griot, Christian; Beer, Martin - Non-discriminatory exclusion testing as a tool for the early detection of foot-and-mouth disease incursions, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Nov 2020, vol 7, article 552670.

Marsh, Glenn; McAuley, Alex; Brown, Sheree; Pharo, Elizabeth; Crameri, Sandra; Au, Gough; Baker, Michelle; Barr, Jenn; Bergfeld, Jemma; Bruce, Matt; Burkett, Kathie; Durr, Peter; Holmes, Clare; Izzard, Lenny; Arkinstall, Rachel; Lowther, Sue; Neave, Matthew; Poole, Timothy; Eastwood, Sarah; Rowe, Brenton; Soldani, Elisha; Stevens, Vicky; Suen, Willy; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Tachedjian, Mary; Todd, Shawn; Trinidad, Lee; Diviney, Sinead; Druce, Julian; Drew, Trevor; Vasan, Vasan - In vitro Characterisation of SARS-CoV-2 and Susceptibility of Domestic Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, online

White, John; Williams, David; Certoma, Andrea; Davies, Kelly; Eagles, Debbie; Wang, Jianning; Chen, Honglei; Melville, Lorna; Davis, Steven; Weir, Richard - Bluetongue virus serotype 12 enters Australia - A further incursion of novel western lineage genome segments, Journal of General Virology, 2020 Dec 17.

Biswas, Siddhartha; Noyce, Ryan; Babiuk, Lorne; Lung, Oliver; Bulach, Dieter; Bowden, Tim; Boyle, David; Babiuk, Shawn; Evans, David - Extended sequencing of vaccine and wild‐type capripoxvirus isolates provides insights into genes modulating virulence and host range, Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67:80–97.

Corbeil, Serge - Abalone Viral Ganglioneuritis, Pathogens 2020, 9(9), 720.

Deng, Yi Mo; Wong, Frank; Spirason, Natalie; Kaye, Matthew; Beazley, Rebecca; Grau, Miguel; Shan, Songhua; Stevens, Vicky; Subbarao, Kanta; Sullivan, Sheena; Barr, Ian; Dhanasekaran, Vijaykrishna -

Locally Acquired Human Infection with Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus, Australia, 2018, Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Jan;26(1):143-147.

Yamaji, Reina; Saad, Magdi; Davis, Charles; Swayne, David; Wang, Dayan; Wong, Frank; et al. Pandemic potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza clade A(H5) viruses. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2020; online in press(online in press):e2099.

Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Green, Diane; Locke, Kelly; O'Brien, Carmel; Dearnley, Megan; Bingham, John. Novel role of SARM1 mediated axonal degeneration in the pathogenesis of rabies. PLoS Pathogens. 2020; 16(2):e1008343.

Bauer, Denis; Tay, Aidan; Wilson, Laurence; Reti, Daniel; Hosking, Cameron; McAuley, Alex; Pharo, Elizabeth; Todd, Shawn; Stevens, Vicky; Neave, Matthew; Tachedjian, Mary; Drew, Trevor; Vasan, Vasan - Supporting pandemic response using genomics and bioinformatics: a case study on the emergent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, Transbound Emerg Dis, 2020;67:1453–1462.

Mackie, John; Blyde, David; Harris, Louise; Roe, Wendi; Keyburn, Anthony. Brucellosis associated with stillbirth in a bottlenose dolphin in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2020; 98(3):92-95.

Latheef, Sanjeetha; Keyburn, Anthony; Broz, Ivano; Bagnara, Amanda; Bayley, CL; Frith, Sarah; et al. Atypical Brucella sp in captive Australian green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea): clinical features, pathology, culture and molecular characterization. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2020; 98(5):216-221.

Avumegah, M.; Waidyatillake, Nilakshi; Michalski, Wojtek; O'Brien, D.P.; Nelson, Tiffanie; Athan, Eugene. Cell-mediated and serology-based tests for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2020; 14(4):e0008172.

Pharo, Elizabeth; Diviney, Sinead; Boyd, Vicky; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Durr, Peter; Baker, Michelle. Host–Pathogen Responses to Pandemic Influenza H1N1pdm09 in a Human Respiratory Airway Model. Viruses. 2020; 12(6 na):679.

Ahmed, Warish; Bertsch, Paul; Bibby, Kyle; Haramoto, Eiji; Hewitt, Joanne; Huygens, Flavia; Gyawali, Pradip; Korajkic, Asja; Riddell, Shane; Sherchan, Samendra; Simpson, Stuart; Siriakanchana, Kwanrawee; Symonds, Erin; Verhagen, Rory; Vasan, Vasan; Kitajima, Masaaki; Bivins, Aaron - Decay of SARS-CoV-2 and surrogate murine hepatitis virus RNA in untreated wastewater to inform application in wastewater-based epidemiology, Environmental Research, 191 (2020) 110092

Riddell, Shane; Goldie, Sarah; Hill, Andrew; Eagles, Debbie; Drew, Trevor. The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces. Journal of General Virology. 2020; 17(145):1.

Bath, Carolyn; Scott, Megan; Sharma, Puspa Maya; Gurung, Rhadna B.; Pefanis, Stephen; Colling, Axel; et al. Further development of a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus and validation in the field with use of an internal positive control. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 2020; online in press (online in press):13.

Hobbs, Emma; Colling, Axel; Gurung, Ratna; Allen, John - The potential of diagnostic point-of-care tests for infectious and zoonotic animal diseases in developing countries: technical, regulatory and sociocultural considerations, Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;00:1–15.

Keyburn, Anthony; Buller, Nicky - Brucella: not your ‘typical ’intracellular pathogen, Microbiology Australia, 41(1) 38-41.

Lean, Fabian; Payne, Jean; Harper, Jenni; Devlin, Joanne; Williams, David; Bingham, John - Evaluation of bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies for the immunohistochemical detection of BTV and other orbiviruses, Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1207

Aguis, Jacinta; Corbeil, Serge; Helbig, Karla - Immune Control of Herpesvirus Infection in Molluscs, Pathogens 2020 Aug; 9(8): 618.

Ji, Beibei; Colling, Axel; Stallknecht, David E.; Blehert, David; Bingham, John; Crossley, Beate; et al. Validation of laboratory tests for infectious diseases in wild mammals: review and recommendations. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigations. 2020; 17.

Mohr, Peter; Crane, Mark; Hoad, John; Williams, Nette; Cummins, David; Neave, Matthew; et al. Pilchard orthomyxovirus (POMV): A newly emerging Orthomyxovirus isolated from pilchards (Sardinops sagax) and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Australia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 2020; 139(0 0):35-50.

Blasdell, Kim; Davis, Steven; Voysey, Rhonda; Bulach, Dieter; Middleton, Deborah; Diviney, Sinead; et al. Hayes Yard virus: a novel ephemerovirus isolated from a bull with severe clinical signs of bovine ephemeral fever. Veterinary Research. 2020; 51: 58.

Hayward, Joshua; Tachedjian, Mary; Kohl, Claudia; Dearnley, Megan; Crameri, Gary; Marsh, Glenn; et al. Infectious KoRV-related retroviruses circulating in Australian bats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2020; 117(17):9529-9536.

Woon, Amanda; Boyd, Vicky; Todd, Shawn; Smith, Ina; Klein, Reuben; Woodhouse, Isaac; Eastwood, Sarah; Crameri, Gary; Bingham, John; Wang, Linfa; Purcell, Anthony; Middleton, Deborah; Baker, Michelle - Acute experimental infection of bats and ferrets with Hendra virus: insights into the early host response of the reservoir host and susceptible model species, PLoS Pathogens, 16(3): e1008412.

Shiell, Brian; Ye, Siying; Harper, Jenni; van der Heide, Brenda; Beddome, Gary; Foord, Adam; et al. Development and characterization of bioreagents suitable for detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus infection. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2020; 1(1 1):1-4.

Samsing Pedrals, Francisca; Hoad, John; Dearnley, Megan; Mohr, Peter; Wynne, James. Comparative transcriptome analysis of pilchard orthomyxovirus (POMV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 2020; 105(1 1):415-426.

Halpin, Kim; Durrheim, D - The dynamic landscape of bat borne zoonotic pathogens in Australia, Microbiology Australia, 41(1) 6-9.

Mohr, Peter; Williams, Janelle; Tashiro, Masato; Streltsov, Victor; McKimm-Breschkin, Jenny. Substitutions at H134 and in the 430-loop region in influenza B neuraminidases can confer reduced susceptibility to all neuraminidase inhibitors. Antiviral Research. 2020; 182:104895.

Wade, Ben; Keyburn, Anthony; Haring, Volker; Ford, Mark; Rood, Julian; Moore, Rob. Two putative zinc metalloproteases contribute to the virulence of Clostridium perfringens strains that cause avian necrotic enteritis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2020; 32(2):259-267.

Kawato, Yasuhiko; Mohr, Peter; Crane, Mark; Williams, Nette; Neave, Matthew; Cummins, David; et al. Isolation and characterisation of an ISKNV-genotype Megalocytivirus from imported angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 2020; 140(n/a n/a):129-141.

Joehnk, Klaus; Graham, Kerryne; Sengupta, Ashmita; Chen, Yun; Aryal, Santosh; Merrin, Linda; et al. The Role of Water Temperature Modelling in the Development of a Release Strategy for Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) for Common Carp Control in Southeastern Australia. Water. 2020; 12(11): Article 3217.

Bradley, Tracey; Mercer, John; Humphrey, John; Moody, Nick; Hunnam, Jamie. Bonamia exitiosa in farmed native oysters Ostrea angasi in Australia: optimal epidemiological qPCR cut-point and clinical disease risk factors. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 2020; 140(N/A N/A):151-165.

Horsington, Jacquelyn; Eschbaumer, Michael; Singanallur Balasubramanian, Nagendra; Vosloo, Wilna - Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in epithelium samples for safe transport and processing in low-containment laboratories, Journal of Virological Methods, 2020 Feb;276:113770

Buchman, Anna; Gamez, Stephanie; Li, Ming; Antoshechkin, Igo; Li, Hsing-Han; Wang, Hsin-Wei; Chen, Chun-Hong; Klein, Melissa; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Crowe Jr, James; Paradkar, Prasad - Broad Dengue Neutralization in Mosquitoes Expressing an Engineered Antibody, PLoS Pathogens, 16(4): e1008545

Singanallur Balasubramanian, Nagendra; Dekker, Adlo; Eble, Phaedra; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Frouke; Klaas, Weerdmeester; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Vosloo, Wilna - Emergency foot-and-mouth disease vaccines A MAY 97 and A22 IRQ 64 offer good protection against heterologous challenge with a variant serotype A ASIA/G-IX/SEA-97 lineage virus, Vaccine, 2020 Feb 10;8(1):80

Singanallur Balasubramanian, Nagendra; Nampanya, Sonevilay; MacPhillamy, Isabel; Soukvilay, Vilayvanh; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Bush, Russell; Khounsy, Syseng; Dhand, Navneet; Windsor, Peter; Vosloo, Wilna - Serological evidence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease infection in goats in Lao PDR, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Aug 2020, Vol 7, article 544

Samsing, Francisca; Hoad, John; Mohr, Peter; Dearnley, Megan; Wynne, James - Comparative transcriptome analysis of pilchard orthomyxovirus (POMV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2020 Oct; 105:415-426.

Mohr, Peter; Crane, Mark; Hoad, John; Williams, Lynette; Cummins, David; Neave, Matthew; Shiell, Brian; Beddome, Gary; Michalski, Wojtek; Peck, Grantley; Samsing, Francisca; Wynne, James; Crameri, Sandra; Hyatt, Alexander; Moody, Nicholas. Pilchard orthomyxovirus (POMV). I. Characterisation of an emerging virus isolated from pilchards Sardinops sagax and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Dis Aquat Organ., 2020 Apr 30; 139:35-50.

Jia, Beibei; Colling, Axel; Stallknecht, David; Blehert, David; Bingham, John; Crossley, Beate; Eagles, Debbie; Gardner, Ian. Validation of laboratory tests for infectious diseases in wild mammals: review and recommendations. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Vol 32, issue 6, 776-792.

Munoz-Fontela, Cesar; Dowling, William E.; Funnell, Simon G. P.; Gsell, Pierre-S.; Riveros-Balta, A. Ximena; Albrecht, Randy A.; Andersen, Hanne; Baric, Ralph S.; Carroll, Miles W.; Cavaleri, Marco; Qin, Chuan; Crozier, Ian; Dallmeier, Kai; de Waal, Leon; de Wit, Emmie; Delang, Leen; Dohm, Erik; Duprex, W. Paul; Falzarano, Darryl;  Finch, Courtney L.; Frieman, Matthew B.; Graham, Barney S.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Guilfoyle, Kate; Haagmans, Bart L.; Hamilton, Geraldine A.; Hartman, Amy L.; Herfst, Sander;   Kaptein, Suzanne J. F.; Klimstra, William B.; Knezevic, Ivana; Krause, Philip R.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Le Grand, Roger; Lewis, Mark G.; Liu, Wen-Chun; Maisonnasse, Pauline; McElroy, Anita K.; Munster, Vincent;   Oreshkova, Nadia; Rasmussen, Angela L.;  Rocha-Pereira, Joana; Rockx, Barry; Rodriguez, Estefania;    Rogers, Thomas F.; Salguero, Francisco J.; Schotsaert, Michael; Stittelaar, Koert J.; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Tseng, Chien-Te; Vergara-Alert, Julia;  Beer, Martin; Brasel, Trevor; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Neyts, Johan; Perlman, Stanley; Reed, Douglas S.; Richt, Juergen A.; Roy, Chad J.;    Segales, Joaquim;  Vasan, Seshadri S.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria; Barouch, Dan H. Animal models for COVID-19. Nature, 2020, 586, 509-515.

McAuley, Alexander J.; Kuiper, Michael J.; Durr, Peter A.; Bruce, Matthew P.; Barr, Jennifer; Todd, Shawn; Au, Gough G.; Blasdell, Kim; Tachedjian, Mary; Lowther, Sue; Marsh, Glenn A.; Edwards, Sarah; Poole, Timothy; Layton, Rachel; Riddell, Sarah-Jane; Drew, Trevor W.; Druce, Julian D.; Smith, Trevor R. F.; Broderick, Kate E.; Vasan, S. S. Experimental and in silico evidence suggests vaccines are unlikely to be affected by D614G mutation in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Npj Vaccines, 5, article number 96 (2020)).

Dearlove, Bethany; Lewitus, Eric; Bai, Hongjun; Li, Yifan; Reeves, Daniel B.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Scott, Paul T.; Amare, Mihret F.; Vasan, Sandhya; Michael, Nelson L.; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Rolland, Morgane. A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate would likely match all currently circulating variants. NAS September 22, 2020 117 (38) 23652-23662.

Annand, Edward J.; High, Holly; Wong, Frank Y. K.; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Chanthavisouk, Chintana; Happold, Jonathan; Dhingra, Madhur S.; Eagles, Debbie; Britton, Philip N.; Alders, Robyn G.

Detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Sekong Province Lao PDR 2018-Potential for improved surveillance and management in endemic regions. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;00:1–15.

Roman, Raul Gomez; Wang, Lin-Fa ; Lee, Benhur; Halpin, Kim; de Wit, Emmie; Broder, Christopher C.;
Rahman, Mahmudur; Kristiansen, Paul; Saville, Melanie. Nipah@20: Lessons Learned from Another Virus with Pandemic Potential, mSphere, July/August 2020 Volume 5 Issue 4 e00602-20.

Conference presentations

Mohr, Peter. Pilchard orthomyxovirus (POMV) - An emerging pathogen in farmed Atlantic salmon in Australia. In: 24th Annual Workshop of the National Reference Laboratories for Fish Diseases; 3-4th November 2020; Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby. EURL fish and crustacean diseases; 2020.

Mohr, Peter. Detection and pathogenicity of yellow head virus genotypes one and seven. In: 11th Annual Workshop of the National Reference Laboratories for Crustacean Diseases; 4-5th November 2020; Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby. EURL fish and crustacean diseases; 2020.